This study adopts the proximate determinants framework to examine fertility change in Kenya. Three objectives are pursued. The first one is to describe fertility levels and trends at the aggregate and subgroup level, classified by level of education and type and region of residence. The second objective is to document trends in the proximate determinants of fertility (breastfeeding, contraceptive use, marital patterns, postpartum infecundability, and sterility). The third objective is to examine the relative role of the various determinants to the fertility decline. Specifically, the Bongaarts' model (Bongaarts, 1978 and Bongaarts and Potter, 1983) is employed to decompose the fertility decline into parts due to changes in each determinant.