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The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) have been asking questions about HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and behaviors since 1988. Indicators include knowledge of HIV prevention methods, attitudes towards those living with AIDS, beliefs about AIDS transmission, and experiences with higher-risk sex, including paid sex.

The AIDS Indicator Survey (AIS) was developed to provide countries with a standardized tool to obtain indicators for effective monitoring of national HIV/AIDS programs. The AIS uses all of the HIV/AIDS questions from the DHS, and, just like the DHS, collects data from a nationally representative sample of women and men. Both the DHS and AIS surveys use consistent sampling methodologies and questions, ensuring comparability among countries and over time.

HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and behavior data through the DHS and AIS are available in over 60 countries. In many cases, these indicators are available in multiple surveys in each country, allowing for trend analysis.

The DHS and AIS provide data for PEPFAR, UNGASS, and UNAIDS indicators, including:

  • Knowledge of HIV prevention methods
  • Percentage of women and men with accepting attitudes toward persons living with HIV/AIDS
  • Knowledge of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV
  • Higher-risk sex in the last year, and condom use at last higher-risk sex
  • Condom use at first sex
  • Percentage of men reporting sex with a sex worker in the last 12 months who used a condom during last paid intercourse
  • Percentage of women and men age 15-49 who have been tested for HIV in the past 12 months and received their test results the last time they were tested
  • Pregnant women counseled and tested for HIV
  • Average number of medical injections per person per year

A full description of HIV-related indicators is available on the HIV/AIDS Survey Indicators Database.

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